X-Ray Diffraction

Lambda is the world’s premier provider of x-ray diffraction residual stress analysis. Using equipment and software specially designed and built by our expert staff, Lambda provides the most accurate XRD readings available on everything from Beryllium to Uranium. We have a large number of diffractometers dedicated to residual stress measurement, guaranteeing precision and speed for testing samples. We provide testing services both at our laboratory and in the field.

Our expertise provides our clients with superior product knowledge and solutions to make stronger, longer lasting components. The high spatial and depth resolutions possible with x-ray diffraction testing are ideally suited for the study of residual stresses from machining, shot peening, grinding, and similar surface treatments, or for high spatial resolution adjacent to fractures, welds, and similar features.

Features of X-ray diffraction testing:

  • Determination of surface and subsurface residual stresses in metal alloy components.
  • Measurements can be made in a wide variety of alloys, including carbon steels, ferritic and austenitic stainless steels, nickel base alloys, aluminums, and titanium based alloys.
  • Quantification of residual stresses due to processes, such as turning, grinding, milling, welding, shot peening, carburizing and induction hardening.

Questions about X-ray diffraction analysis and testing?

We can answer any questions you have about x-ray diffraction testing. For more information call (800) 883-0851 or contact us by email here.

Additional features of X-ray diffraction testing:

Diffractometers – Lambda uses diffractometers that are custom developed and built in-house specifically for residual stress measurement. X-ray diffraction systems are a Bragg-Brentano geometry with a large goniometer radius allowing for higher accuracy measurement compared to standard portable instruments. Our diffractometers are capable of accepting a large range of samples sizes.

X-Ray Detectors – Lambda uses state of the art, high performance solid-state x-ray detectors for residual stress measurements. Our detectors have the highest energy resolution available, providing a high intensity diffraction peak with very low background radiation, for more accurate assessment of the diffraction peak position.

X-Ray Elastic Constant Determination – Lambda measures the x-ray elastic constants required to calculate strain by residual stress measurement. It is necessary to determine the x-ray elastic constant for the specific set of crystallographic planes being measured. Lambda has a database containing several hundred x-ray elastic constants.

Electropolishing Layer Removal – Subsurface residual stress measurements are recommended in order to fully understand the residual stress distribution. Electropolishing is the only viable means of removing material without inducing residual stresses. Lambda has several specially formulated electropolishing solutions to provide a finish and flatness necessary for accurate residual stress measurement. Electropolishing depths can be measured to a precision of 0.0001 in. (0.002 mm).

Material Property Prediction from Line Broadening – Lambda has developed methods of predicting material property information using x-ray diffraction testing with line broadening. Line broadening data collected during a standard residual stress measurement can provide material information such as cold working and hardness.

Automated Mapping – Lambda has developed automated sample translation tables to map the residual stresses via x-ray diffraction analysis. The translation system allows our technicians to easily measure a precise set of points automatically. Results can be plotted to provide a high-resolution residual stress contour describing areas of high gradients and peak residual stresses.

Automated Depth Profiling – Lambda has designed and patented a device that performs automated residual stress depth profiling. The device accepts two samples. Residual stress measurements by x-ray diffraction are made on one sample while the other sample is electropolished. The device alternately electropolishes and measures both samples to rapidly obtain residual stress vs. depth on both samples.

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For additional information regarding X-Ray Diffraction:

Lambda Research Diffraction Notes, No. 19.
Lambda Research Diffraction Notes, No. 20.
Lambda Research Diffraction Notes, No. 27.

For more information on our testing methods or to send your samples call (800) 883-0851 or contact us via email.